Article, Historical

D.Sukhbaatar: Kalmyks who become a refugee

During the war, Stalin ordered, "If Germans captured the Soviet Red Army, they would be shot immediately." For this reason, more than 4,000 soldiers whom Germany captured decided not to return to Red Russia after the war, and most of them fled to West Germany and France. The history of Kalmyk refugees to the West can be divided into three periods. In the first period, those who fought in the White Army after the Civil War traveled through Turkey in the 1920s to Serbia, Bulgaria, France, Romania, and the Czech Republic. In fact, by 1921, 2 million Russian citizens fled to the West to escape from the brutal Soviet Reds.

The second period begins after the Second World War. At this time, Kalmyks traveled through Ukraine and Poland to West Germany and France. Although the Soviet Red Army defeated Germany on May 9, 1945, tens of thousands of Soviet soldiers and officers escaped from the Soviet Army and remained in the West. Among them were hundreds of Kalmyk soldiers and officers. The Soviet soldiers and officers who liberated Poland, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Romania saw in real lives of ordinary citizens of the West in the 1940s of the twentieth century and they realized that they were living in the enslavement of red people and hunger without any property.

The Soviet Red soldiers and officers were surprised to see that farmers in the rural areas of Western Austria, Poland, and Germany had their land, houses, water supplies, baths, electricity, and private cars and tractors. The Soviet commissars lied to soldiers and indoctrinated them that "This is all because the bourgeoisie exploited the workers," but most felt this propaganda was false. Seven million Soviet soldiers liberated Europe, 1 million were killed, and 1.2 million fled the Soviet army during the war. It is said that 500,000 escaped from the Red Army in 1944-1945 and stayed in the West. There is one story. Soviet soldiers who won the war spent three days drinking in Berlin to celebrate their victory. It is said that they decided to test the quality of the German road with a Mercedes captured from Germany, put a large glass full of alcohol in the car, and drove on the German road at a speed of 120 miles. The Germans had such quality roads. Those military officers who remained in the West knew very well that if they returned to the Soviet Union, they would become slaves of the Reds without any private property. Most had no one to wait for them at home, the Reds killed their parents, or their brothers were imprisoned, so they had no interest in returning to the Soviet Union. Soviet society was at the extreme of poverty.

Even now, seventy years after the end of the Second World War, the remote Russian countryside remains as impoverished as before. After the war, it took a lot of work for the thousands of Kalmyk immigrants who remained in the West to flee directly to the United States. Between 1944 and 1951, the Kalmyks lived for six years in an immigrant camp near Munich, Germany, waiting for a visa to flee to the United States. 17 Western countries did not accept the Kalmyks or give them visas and they said, "There is no nation or country called Kalmykia in the world. You are not a white." The US law in 1923 prohibited Chinese and Japanese people from immigrating to the United States. In the 1950s, the Korean War began, and the United States banned immigration from Asia. According to Section 330 of the United States Law of Civil, no colored or black people except white people were allowed to immigrate to the United States.

83 Alexandra Tolstoy Photos & High Res Pictures - Getty Images

Source: https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/photos/alexandra-tolstoy

However, Alexandra Lvovna Tolstoy, the youngest daughter of Leo Tolstoy, the great Russian author of Tatar-Mongolian descent, defended the Kalmyks who wanted to flee to the United States, and through the "Tolstoy Foundation" campaigned on the suffering of the Kalmyks and the right of the Kalmyks to live in America in the media across America.

They provided financial aid to the Kalmyks when they fled to the United States. In 1951, the decision of the US Congress resolved the visa issue for the Kalmyks who fled, which became an invaluable benefit. Currently, 3,000 Kalmyks live in the United States, and more than 1,000 Kalmyks are in France. The children of Kalmyk immigrants in the United States are growing up, and getting a good quality education. They were primarily born in Howell, New Brunswick, New Jersey, Philadelphia, Paterson, and Pennsylvania. In these cities of the United States, from the 1950s to the twentieth century, men from Kalmyks began to work in the construction industry, and women from Kalmyks worked in the sewing industry.

 

 

 

The third period of immigration began in 1990. Among the Kalmyks in the United States, Jab Burkhinov, a human rights defender and a chemist-engineer of the General Electric Company, provided much assistance to the Khalmyks and Mongol Tuurgatans. J. Burkhinov was born in Yugoslavia, graduated as a chemist-engineer from the University of Vienna and Paris in Europe, has a higher education, settled in the United States, and is a patriotic Mongolian who fights steadfastly for the Mongolian people. In the forties and fifties, he helped refugees who fled the Soviet Union and arrived in Lenzing, Austria. After coming to the United States, J. Burkhinov worked as a chemist, laboratory manager, and director of an electrochemical plant in the laboratories of American firms. While working and living in the United States during the Cold War, J. Burkhinov almost single-handedly fought for the rights of small and minority ethnic groups whose human rights were restricted and oppressed in the Soviet Union. Friends warned him that KGB spies might kill him, but he was undeterred and continued his community work for the Kalmyks. J. Burkhinov had a significant influence on the admission of the Republic of Mongolia to the United Nations in 1961. J. Burkhinov also directly assisted in opening the George Soros Foundation in Mongolia. Nowadays, Kalmyk youths who have settled in Europe have higher quality education. Descendants of the Kalmyk people who fled to the West and the United States are now educated and able to live a prosperous life no less than white people.

Publicist: Sukhbaatar Dorj, lawyer, journalist, publicist, historian, and theologian

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