Article, Historical

D.Sukhbaatar: Three. Uriankhai Tuva-I


Today's Tuva people call themselves “мы тувинцы”. If someone says "You are not Tuva, you are Mongol of the descendants of the hero of Subutai" who could understand?

Tell the true story. In 1207, Chinggis Khaan's eldest son Zuchi occupied the territory from Baikal Lake to Khuvsgul Lake, from the Selenge River to Altai, which is the territory of northern Mongolia, and the forest people or Uriankhais united under the banner of the Great Khaan. Forest citizens are Uriankhai people.

However, a part of the people of the forest moved further north and formed a tribe called Uriankhai saha, which is the current Yakut territory.

The people of the northern region of Chinggis Khaan's Great Mongol Empire were historically called Uriankhai Krai until the twentieth century. In 1217, the tribes living in the eastern region of Uriankhai rebelled against the Great Mongol Empire and fought with the army sent by Chinggis Khaan. Chinggis Khaan's general Borgul was killed in a battle. After the suppression of the rebellion, in 1218, the Tumeds rebelled again in cooperation with the Kyrgyz province, and this rebellion covered the Uriankhai region. The rebellion was suppressed by the Mongolian soldiers led by General Zuchi and Mr. Bukh, who completely conquered the forest people. After the suppression of the Tumed rebellion, the Uriankhais became the brave warriors of Chinggis Khaan's left hand.

General Subutai, the hero of Uriankhai, was one of Chinggis Khaan's best generals. Chinggis Khaan's left-hand army with 10 thousand soldiers played a key role in the conquest of Khorezm. Mongol Ethnic Uriankhais, who became a part of the Great Mongol Empire established by Emperor Chinggis Khaan, lived in peace and harmony for almost 200 years from the time of Chinggis Khaan, Ögedei Khaan, Bat Khaan, and Kublai Khaan to the 14th century.

In 1275, Kyrgyz and Uriankhai provinces also revolted again. After the collapse of the Great Mongol Empire, at the beginning of the 17th century, the territory from Khovd to Sayan and Khuvsgol to Altai was the territory of Western Mongolia. At that time, the Uriankhais were the subjects of Altan Khaan. When the Dzungar Khanate was established, the Uriankhai people came under their rule. In 1716, the Uriankhais participated in a war campaign to Tibet with the army of the Dzungar Khanate. At that time, the Uriankhais belonged to the administration of Mr. Buuvei Baatar of Khotogoid. At that time, the hero Buuvei had 5,000 brave horsemen and had a large military force in the northern part of Mongolia, so the Russians were very afraid of him.

In 1717, the hero Buuvei defeated some of the Uriankhais who were intertwined with Tseveenravdan of Oirat and captured 400 Uriankhais. In 1725, Khuralmai zaisan rebelled against the Manchus. Buuvei hero suppressed the rebels. In 1726, King Tseveenravdan of Oirat demanded to give Oleg khem and Khemchug lands to the Dzungar region. The Manchu king did not approve of this. In 1727, according to the treaty between Russia and the Manchu Qing state, Russia decided to take over the vast territory from Kyakhta to Shaviin Pass in the northern part of Mongolia.

The Manchu Qing state defeated the neighboring Dzungar Khanate in 1766, and the territory of Uriankhai krai completely became part of the Manchu Qing state.

The border of Uriankhai was peaceful without wars for two hundred years during the Manchurian period. The people of Uriankhai lived by raising livestock, farming, hunting, and trading. The religion of Buddhism in the borders of Uriankhai, and a temple of Buddha were established, and the people became enlightened people by abstaining from dozens of black sins and doing ten white virtues.

The Uriankhai people were people with vertical Mongolian script. The Uriankhai people wrote in vertical Mongolian script, read Mongolian secret books, and translated Buddhist scriptures from Tibet. The monks of Uriankhai read Ganjuur and Danjuur sutras in Tibet. 22 temples of Buddha were established in the Uriankhai region and Buddhism flourished.

When Tuva was under the jurisdiction of the Manchu Qing State, it was called Uriankhai Krai. At first, they had close relations with the Mongols in Oirat. In the 18th century, the Uriankhais first started trading with the Russians. However, the Manchu-Qing state banned trade with Russia. In 1860, Russia signed the Treaty of Beijing with the Manchurian Empire, and Russian merchants had the right to trade in the territory of northern and western Mongolia and the territory of Uriankhai.

This is how the Russians first came to know the Uriankhai Krai. Soon, following the Russian merchants, Russian farmers began to come to Uriankhai Krai in search of land to plant crops. In 1896, the first Russian village Turan was established with 169 Russian citizens. By 1908, there were more than 200 Russian villages in the Uriankhai region. At that time, Russian citizens did not even come to the border of Uriankhai. The merchants came to look for gold, silver, and coal, the natural resources of the Uriankhai area, and the farmers came to look for land to plant crops. The first gold mine was opened in Uriankhai in 1830, and by 1896, 500 people were working in 11 gold mines.

In 1904-1914, Russians mined 25 tons of gold. Thus, with the Treaty of Beijing, Russian merchants have the right to trade duty-free in western Mongolia and Uriankhai territory, so Russian merchants came to Uriankhai territory and exploited the people of Uriankhai.

From that time, the Russian farmers who came to Uriankhai following the Russian traders took the fertile land with good water and soil from the Uriankhai people and planted crops. They became wealthy Russian farmers and built more than 200 Russian villages on the borders of Uriankhai. But for the Uriankhai people, it became difficult to live because they lost their fertile pasture lands to the Russians. In the 1830s, Russian gold prospectors found gold in Systyk Khem of Uriankhai and began to mine gold secretly, disregarding the laws of Uriankhai, Manchu, and Mongol.

By 1896, 11 gold mines were discovered, 11 gold mines were operated, and more than 500 workers were employed to extract a large amount of gold and enrich the White Russian treasury. In 1881, the Russians mined 446 pounds or 25 tons of gold worth 9.5 million gold rubbles in Uriankhai. Russian gold prospectors became more greedy and expanded their illegal gold mining operations. In 1904-1914, 1140 pounds of gold were extracted from 29 gold mines. The more gold the foreign prospectors mined in Uriankhai, the more impoverished the people of Uriankhai became.

From the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian Empire began to think about how to implement its hidden idea of conquering the gold-rich territory of Uriankhai. In 1911, the Xinhai revolution took place in China and the collapse of the Manchu-Qing state created favorable conditions for the White Russian invaders to cut off the Uriankhai region, which had a small territory but had an amount of wealth, from Mongolia. In Mongolia, the Mongolian princes led by Bogd Khaan declared its independence from the Manchu-Qing State and established Bogd Khanate Mongolia on December 29, 1911. It was at this time that favorable conditions were created for the establishment of Great Mongolia, which was reborn and united. Southern Mongolia, Xingjian Mongols, and Buryat Mongols welcomed this important event with joy and yearned to join Mongolia as a nation.

But instead of all the princes of Uriankhai krai united to support Mongolia, they were divided into three. While one part of the Uriankhai princes was correct in saying that it would become a part of Mongolia, one part was confused that it would become an independent state, and the other part was ignorant that it would become part of the Russian Empire. Considering that at that time there were only a few Uriankhais who rebelled against each other like this, the Uriankhais lost their patriotism towards Mongolia, completely forgot the teachings of Buddha and the teachings of their Great Bogd Chinggis Khaan, and worshiped a foreign power, and became heretic.

In January 1912, the chief of Uriankhai, Mr. Buyanbadrakh, prince Mr. Gombodorj, and abbot Luvsanjamts, submitted a petition to the White Emperor of Russia, "Please include the territory of Uriankhai as part of the Russian Empire." What ignorance. This is how the rebellion of Uriankhai princes to separate from Mongolia and take refuge in foreign countries began. At that time, most of the princes and monks of Uriankhai were not interested in Russian influence. Of course, they wanted to join Mongolia. However, a few Uriankhai princes with blind political policies did not know the hidden intention of separating the territory of Uriankhai, rich in gold and silver, from Mongolia and annexing it to the Russian Empire.

Even the Russian Empire did not want to damage the relations with the newly established Kuomintang China and did not dare to take over the territory of Uriankhai immediately.

Article 11 of the 1915 "Treaty of Kyakhta" of Russia, Mongolia, and China states that the "Uriankhai region is part of outer Mongolia" which was an important provision for Mongolia. But soon this agreement was violated by Tsarist Russia.

In 1921, the Russian Red Army entered Uriankhai. Then came the white soldiers of the White Guard General Andrej Bakich. The Bolsheviks defeated the whites and General Bakich was shot dead in June 1922. In 1917, the red revolution won in Russia, and the red massacre of the Jewish communists took place all over Russia. Millions of innocent people were killed by the reds. Red soldiers led by A. Kravchenko and P. Shchetinkin of Russia entered the territory of Uriankhai. On August 16, 1921, at a meeting of 9 khoshuu of Tuva, the Tuva people, influenced by the Russian Red Bolsheviks, declared the "Tuvan People's Republic".

The Soviet Bolsheviks had seized all political power, forcing them to establish Tuva on their own Soviet model. Mr. Mongush Buyanbadrakh, a young chief, was appointed as the first head of the Government of Tuva, and Kuular Dondog was appointed as the head of the Lower House/Baga Khural. The princes of Tuva did not even know what a dangerous game they were involved in. They were deceived by positions and empty promises. In 1913, Tuva was liberated from the Manchus by the Mongolian general Khatanbaatar Magsarjav. According to the 1915 Treaty of Kyakhta, Tuva was included in Mongolia.

However, Soviet communists put pressure on Mongolia and took the word from the Mongolian leaders that "Mongols will not participate in Tuva affairs again, Tuva is not a part of Mongolia" and took Tuva under their control.

At that time, only two countries in the world recognized Tuva. In 1924, this country was recognized by the USSR. In 1926, Tuva was recognized by the Republic of Moldova under pressure from Soviet communists. The name of Tuva was changed to "Tuvan People's Republic" and the previous name of the capital "Khem Beldir" was changed to "Kyzyl" or "Red". Everything around turned red. The capital of Buryat was named "Ulaan-Ude". The capital of Mongolia was named "Ulaanbaatar". Tuva is recognized by only two countries in the world.

Soon after, in 1929, Monguush Buyanbadrakh was arrested by the Russian Reds, convicted of being a "counter-revolutionary" and shot dead in 1932. After him, the former chairman of the Conference, Kuular Dondog, was also shot dead by the Russian Reds.

It is said that before the shooting, Mr. Buyan-badrahk said: Like the quote "A calf that has been fed will break the cart.", "The friends I nurtured were tigers, and the friends I trained were enemies."

Buyanbadrakh was born in Uriankhai to a horseman, Monguush. When he was young, he was adopted by Khoshuu Mayor Khaidav-Buural. His teacher was an intelligent Mongolian monk. Buyanbadrakh was educated from childhood and spoke Mongolian, Russian, and Manchu languages fluently. Khaidav's father was fighting against the Russian Cossacks of Siberia and his father was defeated by the Russians. After his father's death, Buyanbadrakh became Khoshuu chief at the age of 16. However, he turned his back on Mongolia and took the Russian side, and eventually lost his land to the Russians and was shot and killed by the Russian communists. This is what is said: "A person who is in contact with the devil experiences the poison of the devil" and "If you associate with an evil person, you will be poisoned by a snake."

It is said that some of the Tuva people, who periodically stage armed rebellions against Great Mongol and like to behave arbitrarily, rebelled in a district for the last time in 1924 during the brutal Soviet rule, and were killed by the Russian Bolsheviks, never rebel again. Soon the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party was formed and the Tuva army had 1,500 soldiers. In 1924, the USSR gave Tuva leaders the task of exterminating Buddhism.

However, Tuva leader Monguush Badrakh opposed this assignment saying, "Buddha's teachings are Tuva culture." This is a patriotic act.

In 1932, the population of Tuva was 80,000. Russian colonists owned 10,000 hectares of land in Tuva at that time and owned mining factories. In 1929-1930, there was a strict policy of consultation in Tuva. 15 Buddhist temples, 4000 monks, and shamans in Tuva were arrested and most of them were shot dead. In the 1930s, the influence of Soviet communists and the Comintern became stronger in Tuva, and Tuva communist youths such as I. Shagdarjav and S. Toka were appointed to the leadership of the Tuva communist party organizations. First Prime Minister Buyanbadrakh and his comrades were accused of being "anti-revolutionary, black and yellow feudal lords" and removed from the leadership of Tuva. Only pursued a policy of further strengthening the influence of brutal pro-Soviet communists in Tuva. The relations between Mongolia and Tuva intensified in the late twenties and early thirties, and the issue of taking the Mongolian lands from Tuva and giving them to the Soviets, and joining the Soviets themselves, caused the displeasure of the Mongolian leaders at that time. Saying that the Soviet side will solve the border problem of Mongolia and Tuva, they started to talk about the issue of taking away the territory of Mongolia. In this dirty work, the Tuvans used the communist leadership of the Soviet Union to put pressure on the Mongolian side through the Soviet leaders.

The Soviet Union has cut off the Uriankhai territory of Mongolia three times. No one has written and studied it. But I've researched it, so I'll tell you the truth.

For the first time, in August 1921, the border of Mongolia's Uriankhai was taken under the control of the Red Russian army. Second, in 1932, the Soviet side made strict demands on the Mongolian side to return the territory of Tuva and seized all the territory in front of the mountain range called Tannu Ola, which is the native land of Mongolia. Now, Mongun Taiga region, Ovyur region, Tes Khem region, and Erzin khoshuu of Tuva are located in this area. Red Mongolia could not say anything against Red Russia. Choibalsan did not speak, and the Mongolian government remained silent.

In the summer of 1933, the Mongolian families who were camping in the native lands of Mongolia such as Camel Stone, Oros Davaa, Jargalant, Bor khag, and Durvud davaa, located behind the White Lake pass Camp in Uvs aimag, were suddenly attacked by Red Russian soldiers, who cut the strings of the ger's with knives and forcibly evicted the Mongolian herders at gunpoint. Red Russians took over their native land.

Thirdly, the ambassador to Mongolia through V. Molotov, in 1957 and 1958, seized 2,450 square kilometers of territory from the northern part of Mongolia by making illegal demands on the Mongolian side, saying, "Give us the rest of Tuva".

When the Soviet ambassador to Mongolia, V. Molotov, repeatedly demanded that the northern territory of the Uvs aimag be given to the Soviets, the then Foreign Minister of the Mongolian People's Republic, Avarzed, strongly objected, saying, "Mongolia's native land is not given to a Soviet official when they demand it. "This is decided by the state organization of the Mongolian People's Republic."

The Minister of Foreign Affairs, S. Avarzed, protested against Molotov's barbaric actions for five months, stating that he would not give 2,442 square kilometers of Mongolian territory to the USSR. Avarzed warned V. Molotov that the "Soviet state is trying to take over the northern part of Mongolia, it's the way of aggressive tyrant Russia".

At that negotiation, Minister Avarzed brought two local herders from Uvs aimag to consult with him, but no matter how many times he tried to prove that the target area is the native land of Mongolia, the consulting side did not accept it at all. V. Molotov denounced Avarzed in Moscow and sent a telegram from Khrushchev, head of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party. Mongolian leader Y. Tsedenbal immediately took measures to protect his country after receiving a telegram from the councilor, accusing him of "working against the Soviet comrades" and dismissing him from all positions and exiling him to a remote countryside. Avarzed, a patriot who fought to protect his Mongolian land, was later killed by others. L. Tsend, the Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Mongolian People's Republic, who is considered their"own man" by the Soviets, was appointed as the head of the Mongolian delegation to continue the border negotiations of the Mongolian and Soviet Union.

Thus, "Both parties signed the border demarcation agreement between the Mongolian People's Republic and the USSR on March 26, 1958. In this way, 2,560 square kilometers of Mongolia's native land was lost to Russian Tuva. This is how the Tuvans worked against Mongolia together with the Red Communists of Russia. After the Second World War began, on August 17, 1944, the Tuva State Baga Khural decided that Tuva should be included in the Soviet Union.

Publicist: Sukhbaatar Dorj, lawyer, journalist, publicist, historian, and theologian 



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