Article, Buryatia, Historical

D.Sukhbaatar: Red Buryat

In February 1918, Soviet government was established in Buryatia. Not long after in the summer of 1918, Cossacks Ataman Semyonov overthrew the soviet government, Japanese occupied the Siberian railway in April, United States Mobile Corps arrived.

In 1919-1920, Free Buryat Mongol and Great Mongol were established in the Inner Baikal. But in March 1920, The Russia red army occupied the Upper Ude region and the cruel government of Red Bolshevik was re-established in Buryatia. Lenin’s promises slogan to the people “Give the land to the peasants, factories to the workers and the right of the government to the Soviets” was not implemented.

Bolsheviks took the government authority, the state took over the factory and the commune took over the land. Thus, the cruel dictatorship of the red communists established for 70 years in Buryat Mongol became a great disaster for the Buryat Mongols.

During the soviet government, the brutality and harm inflicted by the Red Communists on the people of Buryat Mongol was hundreds and thousands of times greater than during he Russia Empire. During the time of Tsarist Russia, the Buryat Mongols had the right to worship for Buddhism, raise livestock, protect their property and land.

When the Red Revolution broke out in Russia, the Jewish Bolsheviks suppressed human rights, and many ethnic peoples of the Soviet Union became slaves of the Red Communists. Red commissars killed children and the elder without mercy. The Reds imprisoned millions of people and shot them to death. The communists destroyed even the private wealth and pasture plundered livestock, worshiped god, reading scripture know vertical Mongolian writing and speaking Mongolian mother tongue.

The communists looted the private property, and livestock of Buryat Mongols, destroyed the Buddhism they worshiped, the scriptures they read, the vertical Mongolian alphabet they knew, and even the native Mongolian language they spoke. Left with nothing, Buryat Mongols had no choice but to become slaves of the Red Communists. Buryat Mongol boys were recruited into the Russian army, Buryat Mongol youths were destined to be lost in war or slaughtered by redwoods, and Buryat girls were left as widows.

The Russian communists were playing with the Buryat Mongolian Autonomous Region.

  • In 1921, Buryatia was established as an Autonomous Region of Mongolia, soon after it was changed,
  • In 1922 it became Buryat Mongolian Autonomous Region,
  • In 1923 Buryat became Mongolian ASSR,
  • In 1930 it was included in the Eastern Siberian border,
  • In 1934 Upper Ude was renamed Ulaan-Ude,
  • In 1936 Buryatia again. The Mongolian ASSR was established, and
  • In 1937, Ust-Ord and Agi national constituencies were removed from the Buryat Mongolian ASSR and transferred to Erkhuu and Chita regions.
  • In 1933, the vertical Mongolian script was banned and switched to the Russian Cyrillic.
  • In 1937, the Red Communists of Russia carried out a red massacre against the Mongols in Buryatia, calling them "Great Mongolists" and "Pan-Mongolists".

Later, the Reds lost their strength and divided their territory into five parts without asking the people of Buryat Mongolia, and transferred Ust Ord and Agi Toirog and two large districts to Erkhuu and Chita provinces, which caused Buryat Mongolia to lose 40.0 percent of its territory.

In 1929, 35,000 Buryat Mongols were shot dead by Russian KGB Chekists. 20,000 Buryats who fled Russia and went to Mongolia were shot dead by the Reds of the Ministry of Internal Security of the Republic of Mongolia together with the Russian KGB.

Most of the Buryats who went to Mongolia were killed by Choibalsan, and there are no Buryat men in Khentii and Dornod provinces. Thus, a total of 225,000 Buryat Mongols were exposed to the brutality of the Reds, and only fifty percent survived. Thousands of Buryat intellectuals, monks, workers, and herdsmen were slandered as "Great Mongolist," "anti-revolutionaries," "magnate" "Japanese spies," "white remnants" and "black and yellow feudal lords," and thousands were arrested. Tortured in prison, most of them were shot, and the rest were exiled to the cold hells of Kolym and Norilsk, Siberia, and most of them died there.

Our Buryat people are a heroic people who did not give up even though they suffered massively from Stalin's murder in Russia and Choibalsan's murder in Mongolia.

Buryat Mongols who came to Mongolia were slandered as "Buryats who escaped from the October Revolution", "remnants of whites", "Japanese spies", "anti-revolutionaries", and they arrested and shot all the Buryat men living in Khentii, Dornod and Selenge provinces. All the men in Dadal, Norovlin, Batshireet, Binder and Bayan-Adarga soums in the northern areas of Khentii province were killed by the Reds.

The Buryat women of that time recalled, "All our Buryat men were shot dead by the Red soldiers of Choibalsan. There was not a Buryat man left in our area, so we could not find a man to lead the sheep.'' She used to say with tears in her eyes.

In 1941-1945, the Second World War broke out, and 28.0 million Soviet people were killed. 24.0 million Soviet people were killed in Stalin's massacre. In total, 52.0 million Soviets died. 120,000 people from Buryat were drafted into the army, 34,200 people lost their lives in the war, and 6,500 people returned home as disabled. The scourge of communism did not end there.

In 1958, the name "Buryat Mongolian ASSR" was changed to "Buryat ASSR" by the decree of the Supreme Council of the Soviet Union, removing the word "Mongolia".

In 1990, the Buryat Republic became a republic. The name "Mongol" from the name "Buryat Mongolia" has been completely removed until now. The people of Buryatia and Mongolia were repressed and enslaved by the Russian communists for more than 70 years. There is not a single Mongolian family left in Buryat that has not been killed, injured, or scarred by war or crime. If the Buryat Mongols had not been killed by war and communism, the number of 500,000 Buryat Mongols who lived in the time of Tsarist Russia in 1897 would have increased to more than one million. However, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the number of the indigenous population of Buryat and Mongolia has not even reached the level of the time of Tsarist Russia a century ago. In the 60s and 70s of the 20th century, the "sovietization" ideology prevailed, Buryat Mongol men married Russian wives, gave Russian names to their children, completely abandoned the Buryat Mongol culture and customs, and completely forgot the Buryat Mongol language.

In the eighties, I once went to Chita province, which is directly related to our Khentii province, to study government work experience. They were hospitable people. We got acquainted with many factories and cooperatives of the region. Buryats went to Agi district where Mongols live. The chief of Agi district here was a Buryat Mongolian. But the head of the Communist Party was a Russian. There are more than 200 cooperatives and fund farms in Chita region. But there is only one group with the Mongolian name "Ulaan Odon". I remember a time when I met some Buryat men who came to get fodder and hay from the neighboring Soviet Buryat country to the north in Norovlin soum of Khentii province in Mongolia. I graduated from university in the Soviet Union in the 1980s and studied law. I came to Khentii region and worked as a civil servant at the age of 22. At the end of summer, he went to Norovlin soum of Khentii province on government business and stayed in a hotel. At that time, haymaking in the countryside was in full swing. A group of young Buryats from the neighboring Soviet country of Buryat came with several trucks to take grass from our area to Hezhenge, Buryat, and stayed at the soum hotel.

I got to know the leader of them, a young Buryat yellow guy with a neat Russian-style nose and Slavic-style piercing eyes. I asked him, “Are you married? If you have a wife, do you have a Buryat wife or a Russian wife? asked. The man says that he has a Russian wife. So I told him, "Hey son. Why don't you marry a Mongolian girl from your country? Aren't your Buryat Basgads well-cared for and supportive of marriage? said. But then the man said: "Russian girls are very clean and has European culture. And I married a Russian girl.'' I wondered to myself, "How can this Buryat guy stand the smell of his Russian wife's malodor of sweat." A young man is asking me. "Where did you graduate from school?" Why do you speak Russian well? Have you got a wife? is asking.' I told him, "I recently graduated from university in your city of the Soviet Union, Baku, and studied law. Now I am working in Khentii region. I am not yet married. Soon I will marry a Mongolian girl who knows Mongolian customs in Khentii. Also, I will take a wife by looking at the lineage and age of the woman he will marry. If I marry a girl who is four or eight years younger than me and has the year of the mouse or the dragon, it will be the year of my blessing. "I born in the year of monkey" said the young man, who was surprised and became speechless.

As a result of the great power's genocidal policy, the Buryat Mongol nation was dying in the Soviet Union. In Buryatia, Mongols lost their native Mongol language, Mongol writing and culture, Mongol surnames, pastures, and herds. They lost their native land. In Buryat, Mongols remained with only Mongol faces and Russian mentality. Miserable Mongol language and miserable Mongol culture.

Publicist: Sukhbaatar Dorj, lawyer, journalist, publicist, historian and theologian 


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