Article, Historical

D.Sukhbaatar: Buryat Mongol during the White Tsar of Russia

In 1703, by the order of Peter the Great of Russia, Buryat was included in Russia. In the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689, the Manchurian State and the Russian Empire agreed to mutual trade, but the Manchurian State implemented a policy of prohibiting Russian trade from entering Khalkh Mongolia. This is the policy of Manchuria, which is wary of Russia's influence in Mongolia.

In 1727, when Tvsheet Khan aimag asked the Manchurian king to turn Khuree, Kyakhta and subordinate aimags into a place for trade with Russia, in response, the Manchurian king banned mutual trade and issued an order not to smuggle Russians across the border.

In 1727, the Manchurian and Russian states signed an agreement in the village of Buur near Kyakhta, and officially established the borders of Khalkh Mongol and Russia. According to the negotiations, the entire territory of Baikal in Buryat Mongol came under the jurisdiction of Tsarist Russia.

As soon as Tsarist Russia occupied the territory of Buryatia, it began to impose heavy taxes on the local people. Buryat Mongols paid this service in valuable skins and horses, but they could not pay their taxes on time. In 1851, Tsarist Russia established the Inner Baikal Region. In 1897, the population of Inner Baikal Region reached 672,000. In some places, relations between Buryats and Russians were normal, but Buryat Mongols refused to accept the Russian administration due to Russian atamans exaggerating their positions and the Russian administration causing problems by taking bribes. In this way, Buryat Mongol people were forced from their native lands and when it became difficult to live with taxes, the Buryat Mongolian people sent their ambassadors to Moscow and St. Petersburg, Russia, and raised issues about the interests of Buryat Mongols and protecting their land.

Soon, Buryat Mongols began to flee to Mongolia due to Russian pressure and move away from their country. Most of them went to Mongolia, and the location of the Buryat tribes around Baikal changed a lot. In 1658, under the leadership of ataman Ivan Bahabov, the Buryat Mongol princes and their subjects moved from Buryat shivee to Mongolia. The process of integration of the Buryat Mongols into Russia was complicated and contradictory. It is completely false that all Buryat Mongols voluntarily joined Russia. Buryat Mongol was forcibly annexed by Russia. At that time, the Buryat Mongol nation did not have its own full-fledged state organization, on the one hand, the Tsarist Russian government established its own administration, and on the other hand, the Buryat social stratum conducted its own administration.

By the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, Buryat Mongol had become one of the agricultural and economic backward regions of the Russian Empire. The Tsarist Russian government seized the most fertile and grassy areas in the south of Lake Baikal and the Selenge and Amar river basins from the Mongol people, displaced thousands of Russian peasants, and began exploiting the natural and subsoil resources. Soon, the policy of the Tsarist Russian monarchy became active in Siberia. This policy is mainly focused on land and administrative reforms. When implementing this policy, the Russians decided to allocate 15 hectares of land to Russian farmers and 30 hectares to herdsmen, to allocate land to new Russian farmers coming to settle, and to make the remaining land under the control of the state fund.

The "reform" was actually a genocidal policy of a great power to settle Buryat Mongols, who are small in number, in many villages of Russia, to separate the Buryat Mongol people from each other, to settle in one place in large numbers, and then to make them unable to engage in nomadic animal husbandry. They also increased the administrative and judicial institutions and strengthened the monitoring and policing of Mongols. In 1902-1903, Mongols in Buryatia fought against the aggressive policies of the Russians and clashed with the Russian police and peasants. Many Buryat Mongols fled to Mongolia because Buryat Mongols protested that they would not be subject to Tsarist Russia, and the Tsarist government brutally suppressed this opposition.

Soon after World War I took place, the Mongolian people were burdened by the recruitment of troops and food procurement for the Tsarist Russian army, which participated in the war. The Buryat Mongols, who opposed all this, gave way and fled to Khalkh Mongolia in large numbers. When the national liberation movement first appeared in Buryat Mongolia, the leading ranks were Buryat Mongol scientists, political and religious activists, and representatives of the rich class who were in the positions of bourgeois and petty bourgeois parties.

Vambatserenov, Ch. Ireltuev, G. Tsibikov, G. D. Ochirov, J. Tseveen (Jamtsarano), B. Baradin, M. N. Bogdanov, Agvan Dorzhiev actively participated in the national freedom movement. Agvan Dorzhiev was a prominent Buddhist figure, reformer, and diplomat, and others were renowned scientists, intellectuals, and social influencers.

Buryat Mongols believed that it was much easier to unite ideologically under the banner of national religious unity than to unite on the basis of a sovereign territory. J. Tseveen (1880-1937), Bazar Baradin (1878-1937), Agvan Dorzhiev (1853-1938) believed that Buddhism would be the main idol of the cultural revival of the Buryat nation. This idea of ​​theirs was supported by the people of Buryat Mongolia.

Thus, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the wave of conversion to Buddhism among the Buryat Mongols became active, and the construction of new temples and dats was started in Ehirit, Nugat, and Olikhon. Subsequently, they demanded that the Russian Ministry of People's Enlightenment spread the teachings of Buddhism in Buryat schools, allow the establishment of national schools to teach Buryats in the Mongolian language, and grant the Buryat Mongolian public the right to hire monk to teach children in these schools.

Capitalism began to develop in Russia at the beginning of the new twentieth century. The Tsarist Russia built the Siberian Railway and the Inner Baikal Railway was opened in 1900. However, in 1917, the Red Revolution of the Jewish Bolsheviks won in Russia, and a brutal Communist rule was established, unprecedented in Russian history. The reds who came to power brutally killed the Russian Emperor Nicholas along with his family and young children, and brutally killed more than a hundred correspondents of the emperor's brothers. 13.0 million Russians were killed in this civil war by the Bolsheviks in Russia, who regarded others as enemies, counter-revolutionaries, and foreign spies, and killed their Russian brothers. The Russian economy collapsed and the people were starving, and Russia was on the brink of collapse.

Publicist: Sukhbaatar Dorj, lawyer, journalist, publicist, historian and theologian 


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