Article, Historical

Series of Articles: D.Sukhbaatar, Two.Buryat Mongol

What is Buryat Mongolia? Why are Mongols divided into many parts? It's time, to tell the truth. During the previous six centuries, the neighboring powers incited the Mongols to compete with each other, and the Mongols themselves fought among themselves and rebelled, becoming bait for foreign powers, destroying the Great Mongol, and becoming a small country that could not even protect itself. Buryat Mongol is a part of that period of conflict and decline. Buryat is the lost land of Mongolia.

The word "Buryat" is interpreted differently by some scholars as Buri - wolf, Burgud - eagle, Buraad - people of the forest.

The area around Baikal in Buryat Mongol was the territory of the Hunnu / Xiongnu  /, the ancestors of the Mongols, from 220 BC to 200 AD. Then Xianbei state / 93-235 / established by the ancestors of Mongols, then the Rouran Khaganate /220-535/, and then the Mongol Empire  /1206-1368/ established by Chinggis Khaan is the native land of our ancestors. The ancestors of the Buryat Mongols were the Merged, Bayad, Khor-Tumed, and Barga Mongols of the Mongolian province. Buryat is the Mongol nation, a Mongol ethnicity. Buriyat's native language, writing, culture, religion, and origin are all Mongol. This is the truth of the story. No one can deny this. Today's Buryat Mongols will think of themselves as “мы буряты, наш родной язык бурят”. "You are not Buryats, you are Buryat Mongols."

Russian Cossack invasion.

At the beginning of the seventeenth century, Russian Cossack troops began to invade the Mongolian region of Baikal. At that time, Mongols led by Galdang attacked Khalkh Mongolia from the west, Russian Cossacks attacked from the north, and Manchus began to press from the south. Since the Mongols could not fight on three fronts at the same time, the main conditions for the loss of Mongolian territory arose. The Russian Empire expanded its borders a long time ago, after conquering the Urals and Siberia owned by Tatar Mongol Khuchum Khaan, it began to covet the Mongolian region around Baikal. Ataman Yermak of the Russian Cossacks played a key role in the destruction of the empire of Khuchum Khaan of Siberia. The Russians' greed was not satisfied by only conquering Siberia.

Russian Cossacks began to attack the Baikal area. When they learned that the area around Baikal is rich in gold and silver deposits, they became even more greedy for this area. In the 17th century, when the Russians invaded this region inhabited by the Mongol tribes of Buryat, a fierce struggle began between the Mongol princes and the Russian Cossack atamans. The conflict between them sometimes turned into armed conflict. The first person to invade the Mongolian territory around Baikal was the head of the Russian military detachment named Pyotr Beketov.

In the autumn of 1628, Beketov's detachment went up the Angar River and reached the Buryat region of Lower Ud and Balagan. Beketov went to inner Baikal’s Mongol region and immediately demanded taxes from the local Mongol people. In 1635, the Russian Siberian administration reported to the emperor: "Peter Beketov accompanied his troops to the Buryat Mongol land, to the headwaters of the Lena River and the banks of the Ona River. When the Buryats and Zurchids, who had not previously paid service to Russia, were asked to perform state service, these Buryats and Zurchids protested, and used to beat people.

But Beketov and his comrades were under siege for three days, Peter and his soldiers beat and killed those Buryat Mongols by beating them to death. The number of Buryat people killed has reached 90..." he said. Thus, the citizens of Buryatia began to pay taxes to the Russian king.

In 1643, Kurbat Ivanov made an attack to conquer Olkhon Oltrogo of Lake Baikal. In 1644, the people of the Amar region decided to retaliate against this attack, and together with the people of the Lena (Grass) and Amar (Black) rivers, they besieged the Verholensky (head of the Lena) fortress three times. The siege was unsuccessful. In those years, Ataman Vasily Kolesnikov, who received a special mission to collect news about silver deposits and silver mines from the Yenisei, came to the area around the Angar River. In 1644, Kolesnikov embarked on a campaign to surrender Angar and decided to spend the winter in the mountains of Osgol, where he fought against the neighboring Bratske tribes for the whole winter, looting and looting, which angered the local Buryat Mongol people.

In 1645, Kolesnikov went on the road again and went on a raiding expedition, reaching Lake Baikal and robbing the Mongol people in the Buryat region of the Kud and Angar rivers. Thus, Russian Cossack soldiers, merchants, and later officials came to Baikal in large numbers, and in 1646, in Upper Angar, in 1648, in Bargujin, in 1665, in Selenge, and in 1666 in Upper Ude, Russian military settlements were established in the native lands of Northern Mongolia. The policy was implemented. In 1681, the Holy Troitsk Christian Church was built in the Inner Baikal region by order of the Russian king Fyodor. Khalkh Mongol princes did not sit back and watch the imperial Russian troops aggressively occupy the Mongolian lands around Baikal.

In 1688-1689, Tvsheet Khan Chakhundorj of Khalkh Mongol sent 5000 Mongol soldiers to the area around Baikal to fight against the Russian invaders in the direction of Selenge and Ude, destroying the newly built fortress of the Russians and expelling the Russian soldiers from their native land. However, 30,000 soldiers of Oirat Galdan suddenly invaded Khalkh Mongol, so Tusheet Khan's Mongol army left the northern region and returned home immediately. Taking advantage of this leave, the Russian Cossacks again began to appear in the Baikal region. At that time, the independent tribes of the Buryats could not unite, and the Mongol princes did not have any common policy on how to resist the Russians, or how to protect their native land, and they did not have their own regular army or weapons. One group of Buryat tribes supported Tusheet Khan and Setsen Khan of Mongolia and fought against Russian aggression, while the other group supported Russia and defected to the Russian Cossack army and joined with the enemies, and carried out operations against the Mongols.

Publicist: Sukhbaatar Dorj, awyer, journalist, publicist, historian and theologian 

Related Posts