Article, Historical

Series of Articles: D. Sukhbaatar - Southern Mongolia oppressed by communism

In 1917, the Red Plague of Communism, which broke out in Russia, not only spread to Mongolia in 1921, but also spread to Great China in the East. The Communist Party of China was first established in 1921. The Chinese communists were initially guided by Jewish communists like Borodin of the Soviet Comintern. Soon, Mao Zedong /1893-1976/ appeared at the head of the Chinese Communist Party. Mao initially had very friendly relations with Stalin, but later fell out with the new leader of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev, and Soviet-Chinese relations cooled in the sixties.

Who is Mao Zedong?

Mao was born in 1893 in Shaoshanchong in Xiangtan county, a very poor village in Hunan Province, China. But Mao's father, Mao Yichan, was a strict Confucianist, a landowner, and a wealthy man. His mother, Wen Qimei, was a devout, compassionate person.

Mao didn't even learn Confucianism or Buddhism from childhood, and he didn't care at all. But Mao was a child who was in conflict with his father since childhood. Mao was sent to school by his parents, but dropped out at the age of 13.

When Mao came home, he did not help with the housework, but did nothing but read at home. His father helped him again and gave him money to continue his studies at school.

Mao soon went to Beijing became an assistant to the library's director, Professor Li Dazhao, the founder of the Chinese Communist Party. Li Dazhao greatly influenced Mao to become a Marxist. Mao read forbidden books there and was especially attracted to communist books, which were forbidden. His wrong action has started.

Mao met Marxists like Li Dazhao and Chengdu in Beijing and decided to devote his life to the revolution. Mao was a tall, sharp-witted young man who loved to compose oriental poetry. His parents arranged for him to marry his cousin in 1908, but he abandoned the marriage and left the village. While secretly working in anti-government groups in Beijing and Shanghai, Mao made contact with many revolutionaries. Among them were Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, who graduated from France, and Zhu De, the first general of the Red Army. In 1927, Mao came to Shaanxi Province and established a Soviet government. Mao joined the Kuomintang Party and served for a while. The first president of China, Sun Yat-sen or Song Zongshan, cooperated with the Communist Party of China to carry out the national revolution until the top, and even obtained weapons from the Soviet Comintern.

After Sun Yat-sen's death in 1925, Chiang Kai-shek, also known as Jiang Jieshi, began to fight against the Communists. In 1927, Jiang Zeshi arrested and killed Shanghai Communists one after another. Mao also retreated to the mountains and forest. There, Mao worked hard to create a peasant revolution and to arm the Chinese Communist Party. The whole world is well aware of the red revolution organized by Mao in China. The civil war in China he instigated, the introduction of the Chinese volunteer army in Korea, the "Great Leap Forward Policy" and the "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" in China, the world knows how much harm he caused to the people. In 1940, Mao was able to transform the Communist Party's army of 40,000 red soldiers into a large army of 1 million soldiers. Mao defeated Chiang Kai-shek.

Why did Mao defeat Chiang Kai-shek?

During the Sino-Japanese War, Mao signed an agreement with the Kuomintang Party to fight against the Japanese, but he violated the agreement and hid his Red Army in the mountains to avoid fighting the Japanese. However, Chiang Kai-shek fought against the Japanese with his army of 300,000 soldiers and lost a lot of strength. The Soviet Union defeated Japan in the war and handed over all the weapons captured from the Japanese army in Manchuria to the Chinese Red Army. America, which had been helping Chiang Kai-shek of the Kuomintang with weapons, suddenly stopped its aid. This is how Chiang Kai-shek was defeated by the Chinese Red Army. This is how the Chinese Red Army with straw sandals became the world's most powerful Red Army. China no longer has the power to stop the mighty Chinese Red Army, which has tanks, aircraft, and artillery. The whole world knows that Mao sent 80,000 soldiers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army to Tibet from 1951 to 1959, bombed the Tibetan people with warplanes, attacked them with foot soldiers, and shot them with artillery and machine guns.

During the Sino-Japanese War, Mao signed an agreement with the Kuomintang Party to fight against the Japanese, but he violated the agreement and hid his Red Army in the mountains to avoid fighting the Japanese. However, Chiang Kai-shek fought against the Japanese with his army of 300,000 soldiers and lost a lot of strength. The Soviet Union defeated Japan in the war and handed over all the weapons captured from the Japanese army in Manchuria to the Chinese Red Army. America, which had been helping Chiang Kai-shek of the Kuomintang with weapons, suddenly stopped its aid. This is how Chiang Kai-shek was defeated by the Chinese Red Army. This is how the Chinese Red Army with straw sandals became the world's most powerful Red Army. China no longer has the power to stop the mighty Chinese Red Army, which has tanks, aircraft, and artillery. The whole world knows that Mao sent 80,000 soldiers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army to Tibet from 1951 to 1959, bombed the Tibetan people with warplanes, attacked them with foot soldiers, and shot them with artillery and machine guns.

In the 1950s, Mao launched the "Great Leap Forward" policy and plunged China into starvation. 20.0 million people starved to death in China. During the Cultural Revolution, Mao incited ignorant youths to be "Red Guards" and destroyed the country. As a result of Mao's 1966-1976 Cultural Revolution, 1 million innocent Chinese were killed by Red Guards. 1 million Chinese volunteers died as a result of Mao's introduction of the Chinese Red Army into the Korean War. In 1959, Mao fell out with Soviet leader Khrushchev. Soon, under Mao's persuasion, the Chinese people shouted slogans like "Down with American imperialism and down with Soviet revisionism," waved red flags, and went crazy with politics. Mao's Red Revolution left the Chinese people starving and devastated.

The Chinese people supported Mao's Red Revolution in 1949, and China became a socialist power, but left behind three decades of hunger and poverty until 1980, when Deng Xiaoping's reforms took place. In the mid-sixties, Mao Zedong demonstrated to the public that he was a prodigious warrior communist leader who swam across the Yangtze River in 1966. Mao became a living Chinese idol. Soon after, by Mao's order, China got atomic weapons in 1964, and as a result of multiple atomic bomb tests, Mongolian people and land suffered great losses in Tibet around Lake Lob. Mao was married four times. Escaped from his first wife. His second wife gave birth to three children. His third wife was 17 years younger than him. She gave birth to 5 children. His fourth wife was Shanghai actress Jiang Qing, 23 years younger than him. One child was born. Mao's young wife, Jiang Qing, led the Red Guards into chaos, killing millions of innocent people and turning the country into hell. Mao encouraged his young wife's illicit activities. Mao died in 1976 at the age of 83. Mao had a chance to choose the right path for his youth.

Мао Зедун болон түүний сүүлийн эхнэр Цзян Цин нар Зургийг Британика сайтаас

Мао Зедун болон түүний сүүлийн эхнэр Цзян Цин нар Зургийг Британика сайтаас / Mao Zedong and his last wife Jiang Qing Image from Britannica

If at the beginning of the 20th century, the Chinese combined the teachings of the ancient Confucian sage and the modern theory of Sun Yat-sen, and chose the option of becoming a constitutional monarchy like Britain and Japan, or a republic like France, the market would have developed without killing people, and human the opportunity to build a new China that respects rights was complete. It is nothing but the idea of ​​the devil to build communism by killing 65 million Chinese people. Chairman Mao, the idol of the Chinese, didn’t know this.

Chairman Mao didn’t know that the country's economy develops according to Adam Smith's theory of market economy. Chairman Mao knew that in a few years, China, which had reached the extremes of poverty through the experiment of communism, would develop according to the laws of the market and become one of the most powerful countries in the world with the largest economy. Not even a dream.

Chairman Mao once said: “The people are white paper. "You can write anything on it." Mao used the people as guinea pigs to test the brutal theory of communism on one billion Chinese people. Mao, like Stalin, was a brutal revolutionary and communist leader.

At the end of the sixties, when we were studying in Mongolian elementary school, it was said that "Chinese Red Guards broke the windows of the Mongolian Embassy in Beijing and burned the ambassador's car and beat the Mongolian diplomat." Mao made it a point to kill his second-in-command. Mao imprisoned and killed his successor, Liu Shaoqi, with the help of his Red Guards. Mao's young wife, Jiang Qing, took the lead in this illegal operation. He was later replaced by Defense Minister Lin Biao, who clashed with Mao and aspired to the post of head of state, which is believed to have displeased Mao. In September 1971, Lin Biao was fleeing to the Soviet Union in an English-made "Trident" airplane, and his plane crashed near the village of Berkh, which is located seventy kilometers east of the capital of Khentii Province, Mongolia.

Berkh is the place where Mongolia's largest feldspar mine is located. At that time, I was a 14-year-old student in the seventh grade of the secondary school in Undurkhaan, Khentii province. I went to see that crashed plane. It was just a long white plane with many windows. The plane's wings and engine have been lying on the side of Barkh for many years.

"There were 9 people in the plane, one woman's body was found. The woman had a mouthful of golden teeth. All the people on that flight had Makarov pistols manufactured by the Soviets. It is said that at that time, people from the Chinese Embassy came to Khentii Berkh and participated in their funeral. A few days after the burial, Russian officers of the Soviet Union's KGB (Committee for State Security, foreign intelligence and domestic security) came from Moscow to exhume the buried people and perform an autopsy, which proved that they were the bodies of Lin Biao and his wife and relatives.

In the 1980s, representatives of the Soviet government organization from Chita region of Russia visited Khentii province and on their way back, I showed them the wrecked Chinese plane, and the Russians were surprised and very interested. Just as Buryat, Tuva, and Kalmyk were destroyed by the Red Communists of Stalin's Soviets, the fate of Southern Mongolia being destroyed by Mao's Chinese Red Communists awaited our Southern Mongolians.

In 1947, the Chinese Communists declared Southern Mongolia as livestock province of China under the false name of "Southern Mongolian Self-governing Region". The Red Chinese thought that Southern Mongolia was an autonomous country with the status of a Chinese province. The cruel rule of the Chinese Red Communists was established in Southern Mongolia. The brutal rule of the Red Chinese was worse than the Kuomintang rule, not to mention the Manchurian rule. The Manchu and Kuomintang governments never confiscated the Chinese people's property, land, livestock, and never destroyed their idols. In 1949, the Red Communists of China took complete control of all of China except Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau.

Generalist Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang forces retreated to Taiwan, where the Kuomintang established capitalism with the help of America and greatly developed Taiwan. At this time, the economy of mainland China was collapsing as a result of the brutal policies of the Red Army, and the people were starving. The Chinese Reds took control of all institutions such as the military, social security organizations, police, courts, prosecutors, industries, financial banks, and began to rule the country by military force. In the 30 years before the Chinese government established a policy of transition to a market economy in 1978, massacres involving people of all races and ethnic groups continued unabated in China.

Red’s bloody repression did not bypass Southern Mongolia. Crazy political movements such as "Land Distribution", "Resisting the West", "Unification", "Cultural Revolution", "Cutting the Bourgeoisie's Tail" etc. took place all over China. Families were scattered and tens of thousands of innocent people lost their lives. From 1966, the "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" initiated by Mao took place in China. Intellectuals, teachers, and scientists were beaten, imprisoned, and killed. The Red Guards destroyed religious and cultural values ​​and destroyed them at will. In 1968, a total of 20 million, according to some reports, 38 million Chinese people starved to death throughout China.

There is a multi-episode Chinese TV series called "The Plain World". In that movie, the ordinary people in the Chinese village have no food to eat, no blankets, and no clothes to wear. In one family with many children, the children took turns wearing the one child's clothes, and the children who were left naked, covered themselves with blankets, and lay on the bed waiting for the arrival of the other child. In the sixties and seventies, red China was such an extremely poor country.

Starting from 1966, the political madness of the Reds called the "Cultural Revolution" instigated by Mao reached the remote areas of China, and tens of thousands of Red Guards /hongweibin/ entered Southern Mongolia. The Red Guards destroyed the customs, traditions, culture and religion of the Mongolian nation. It was forbidden to speak Mongolian and Chinese became the official language. The Red Guards tortured and killed tens of thousands of Mongolian intellectuals and ordinary people. The Red Guards even arrested Ulaankhuu, the leader of Southern Mongolia, and put him under house arrest. The Red Guards broadcast propaganda against the Republic of China and the Soviet Union, slandering tens of thousands of Southern Mongolians as "foreign Mongolian spies" and "members of the Southern Mongolian People's Party" and beating them to death.

Some data on the killings during the Cultural Revolution are taken from Southern Mongolia and some Mongolian media and Internet sites: Between the winter of 1968 and the spring of 1969, Southern Mongolians were massacred in large numbers under the fictitious case of the "Southern Mongolian People's Party". According to the history of the "People's Revolutionary Party of Southern Mongolia", this party was founded on December 10, 1925 in Janchkhuu or Chuulalt khaalgan. It proposed three major goals: "opposing the imperialist aggressor, opposing the feudal lords, and opposing the colonialism of Great China" and was wating the guidelines of the Third International. Third international representative Ochirlef (Buryat), Chinese Communist Party representative Zian Too, and Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party representative Dambadorj congratulated the party.

Due to the persecution of Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang government, the Southern Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party held its second meeting in 1927 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

. In 1945, after the end of the Second World War, when the Chinese Communist troops began to enter Southern Mongolia from the west, the People's Party of Southern Mongolia took the initiative to unite and enter Mongolia, following the world standard, signed the signatures of more than thirthy thousand citizens within 20 days and loaded the documents on a horse-drawn cart to Mongolia, went to the capital city of Ulaanbaatar.

No one paid any attention to them as they suffered and crossed the forested ridge of Ikh Khyangan. However, the three great powers, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States, established the so-called "Yalta agreement" and trampled on the aspirations of the Southern Mongolians, and made the decision to hand over Southern Mongolia to China. In 1946, it became clear that the so-called "Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region" under the rule of the CCP / Chinese Communist Party would be established by a red Chinese government, not Southern Mongolia itself.

Due to the leadership style of the Southern Mongolian People's Party, or participation in the new government, it was officially announced that the party had disbanded, and all of them joined the CCP. By 1958, 10 million Chinese citizens had managed to settle in Southern Mongolia. The Chinese Communist Party recruited Southern Mongolian youth to join the Chinese Liberation Army. In one tragic story, a cavalryman from Southern Mongolia, who was part of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, had to fight against the Tibetan people in Tibet together with the Chinese Red Army. In 1950, under the name of liberating Tibet from foreign imperialism and domestic feudalism, the Chinese Red Army aggressively occupied the Amdo and Kam regions of Tibet. The Chinese Red Army brutalized the Tibetan people, shot monks and killed the people, demolished their Buddhist temples, and began to seize their livestock. In 1958, the people of Tibet revolted. The Chinese decided to suppress this rebellion with the cavalry of Southern Mongolia. The Chinese sent a fully armed modern Chinese army of 80,000 soldiers into Tibet. The Chinese Red Army was an experienced soldier who fought against the Kuomintang and participated in the Korean War. However, the Tibetan cavalry had only 4,000 horsemen armed with old-fashioned guns, mostly swords and bows and arrows.

The Tibetan army was poorly organized, there were almost no officers with military experience to lead it, and there was no military assistance from abroad. Thus, there was an unbalanced battle between Tibet and China. While the Chinese Red Army had aircraft, artillery, tanks, armored vehicles, and machine gun mortars, the Tibetan army had no weapons other than riding horses, swords, and guns. Having defeated their main military forces, the Tibetans had no choice but to go to the mountains and wage a guerrilla war. The herdsmen in Tibet started a guerilla movement against the Chinese. The Tibetan Plateau is a place with rough weather and thin air at an altitude of 4000-5000 meters above the ground level. It was very difficult for the Chinese Red Army to fight there.

The Tibetan rebels with fast horses accustomed to the mountains were not easily caught by the Chinese soldiers. The Chinese used Soviet-made fighter bombers to bomb Tibetan temples and insurgents. Sometimes it was difficult to even fly a plane in the Tibetan highlands. At that time, the Red Chinese found a "wise" method. In China, there is an old wise saying "to kill the wild with the wild". Since ancient times, the Chinese called the people after the Great Wall "Hu" or "Savages". The Red Chinese cleverly took advantage of the fact that the Chinese People's Liberation Army had powerful Southern Mongolian cavalrymen who wore Japanese swords, graduated from Japanese military schools, were highly educated, and armed with modern guns and machine guns, and ordered them to fight in Tibet.

In the summer of 1959, 2 companies / 1 company means 1,000 cavalry / Southern Mongolian cavalry arrived in Xining City via Lanzhou by train. From there, the Southern Mongolian cavalry went directly to the Tibetan Plateau and entered the battle. The tactics of the Chinese Red Army is to bomb the Tibetan rebels in some places with airplanes and then fire them with artillery. Later, the Chinese infantrymen were brought in and shot with machine guns. At the end, the Tibetans on horseback and on foot who escaped were massacred by the Southern Mongolian cavalry.

When the Tibetans saw the cavalry of Southern Mongolia, they bowed down and greeted them, mistaking it for the cavalry of Chinggis khaan from Khalkh Mongol to help them.

But it is said that the Tibetans found out too late that the cavalry they saw slaughtering the Tibetans was not the cavalry of Chinggis, but the red cavalry of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. 3200 Southern Mongolian horse soldiers entered this war. A total of 200 Southern Mongolian soldiers were killed in the battle. Mongolian horses taken to Tibet could not overcome the harsh weather and natural conditions, and all of them died. The Tibetans killed by the Chinese army were in the tens of thousands. The 54th Division of the Chinese Red Army killed 12,000 Tibetans in the first battle. Chinese soldiers shot and killed all captured Tibetan men.

In this way, it is said that the Southern Mongolians, who killed their Buddhist Tibetan brothers on the orders of the Red Chinese, lost their name in Tibet. Until now, the Tibetans of Amdo and Kam do not respect Chinese and Southern Mongolians. Soon after the Cultural Revolution began in China in 1966, the Red Chinese arrested all the Southern Mongolian soldiers who were fighting in Tibet and most of them were killed. The Southern Mongolians call this "heaven's punishment and karma for killing their brothers in Tibet."

In 1962, the Dalai Lama ordered the Tibetans, who were fighting guerrillas in Tibet, to "not fight again with the Chinese army", and stopped the war. In 1959, 100,000 Tibetan refugees led by the Dalai Lama fled from Red China, crossed the Himalayas and fled to India. The Indian government welcomed the Tibetan refugees with a feast, gave them land in Dharamshala, and allowed them to establish a temporary Tibetan government. The Americans, who were helping the Tibetan guerrillas with weapons, suddenly stopped helping the Tibetan rebels. Thus, 6 million people of Tibet fell into the hands of the Red Chinese. It is said that during the Cultural Revolution in Tibet, 6 thousand Buddhist temples were destroyed and 1 million Tibetans lost their lives. In 1968, international lawyers of the United Nations concluded that it was a genocide committed by China against the Tibetan religious people.

In 1968, the Chinese attacked the Southern Mongolians and began killing and arresting them, claiming that "the Southern Mongolian People's Party continues to carry out its secret plan to merge with Southern Mongolia and become independent for a single day. "How many Southern Mongolians were massacred between the winter of 1968 and the spring of 1969, not to mention the Southern Mongolians who had no government and power, and even the Chinese Reds who organized the massacre did not know. In 1980, according to the information published by the Supreme Procuratorate of China, during the Cultural Revolution, 346,652 Southern Mongolians were repressed and injured, 16,222 were killed, and 87,188 were maimed.

In 1989, according to the information published by the party committee of Southern Mongolia: more than 480 thousand people were persecuted. However, Southern Mongolians believe that 40-50 thousand Southern Mongolians have lost their lives and 200 thousand Southern Mongolians have been maimed. 150,000 people were repressed in Ikh Zuu / Great Hundred Provinces (the center of which is now Ordos), which is 21 percent of the Chinese and Mongolian population, which means that every Mongolian was repressed. 18 people were killed and 33 people were maimed within 18 days after Chinese soldiers and Chinese workers visited the sparsely populated Saikhan Tal Brigade in Ulaankhad soum, a northern khoshuu of Tsahar's right hand (passing from Ereen to Hohhot, and adjacent to Jinin Province). Darkhan Muu myangan allied headland /located at the foothills of Dalan Khar Mountain/ had 10,800 Mongols, 266 of whom were killed.

In just one night, 144 of the 360 ​​families settled behind the khoshuu /cape, along the border of Southern Mongolia, were forcibly evicted and replaced by Chinese people. There were 217 Mongolians in the Sharagchin brigade of Bagsh soum in the eastern province of Tumed /bordering with Hohhot/ and they repressed not a single one. At that time, there were only two railway lines in Southern Mongolia, one of which was connected to Mongolia. This "Hohhot-Ereen-Ulaanbaatar route" caused a lot of Chinese suspicion, so the few Mongols working on the railway were repressed. There were 446 Mongolian employees in the railway bureau of Hohhot, 442 of them were repressed, 13 Mongolians were killed and 347 were maimed. There were 13 Mongolian employees in Jining Railway Bureau, one of them was killed and 12 were maimed.

Khorchin, which is considered to have the largest number of Mongols in Southern Mongolia (380 thousand), repressed 190 of the 210 personnel of the Soum in the middle province of the left hand. A Chinese doctor was also arrested when the body of a person who died without self-injury was taken out of the hospital and wrote that he died of "superficial wounds". A Mongolian family that had planted a lot of trees was slandered by saying that they were preparing poles to tie horses to Ulaankhuu's traitorous soldiers, sawed down the trees, and executed a man. They slandered a family that had a good harvest, saying that they were preparing food for their escape, and tortured the owner by confiscating their rice. Every Mongol over the age of 14 was repressed in the Nogoon Nuruu soum with false accusations of being "supporters of the Southern Mongolian People's Party".

929 out of 2,961 Mongols were repressed in Tug soum, Uushin khoshuu, Ikhzuu aimag, which is 71.0 percent of the total population.

Mongols working in the Ministry of Southern Mongolia were severely repressed. According to the Ministry of Internal Protection of Southern Mongolia, more than 200 Mongols were repressed in connection with the incident. "If you kill one Mongol, you are a good man, and if you kill ten, you are a hero!" under the slogan, Chinese soldiers, workers, and farmers who came to Southern Mongolia early and settled in Southern Mongolia declared a war to take national revenge from the Mongols (if the Mongols are guilty of them, they are only guilty of settling them in their own land). General Teng Hai Ching, who was appointed from Beijing as the commander-in-chief of Southern Mongolia, went to the western province of Demchigdonrov Van /Prince De / and set the norm of "repressing 55 percent", which the Chinese quickly fulfilled.

Torment species has reached a level of horror beyond belief for modern humanity. In the Ikh Zuu aimag, there were 50 species of torment, while in Tsahar gul ulaan and Khovoot ulaan khoshuu (current summer camp) there were more than 170 torments. They tortured a Mongolian named Joe Lian Bi from the eastern province with 49 kinds of torments (The above factual information is taken from the book "Repression by the Southern Mongolian People's Party". The Golden World was written in Chinese and published in Hohhot in 2004).

The Chinese divided the western and eastern regions of Southern Mongolia into Chinese provinces such as Liaoning. After the Cultural Revolution, the leadership of the Southern Mongolia was filled with Chinese people. Most of Southern Mongolian intellectuals and workers were killed.

Thus, in the twentieth century, the epidemic of Red Communism spread throughout China, reaching Southern Mongolia, Tibet, and Xinjiang Uighurs, and the country was greatly destroyed. In China, famine, destruction, and massacres spread, and the people fell into hardships that had never been seen even during the Manchu and Qing Dynasty and the Kuomintang. The ten years of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) were the years of death and destruction for the Chinese. China became a country of hell. A total of 20.0 million / some Chinese reports say 1.0 million people were killed / innocent Chinese citizens were killed as a result of the Great Cultural Revolution instigated by Mao in China. In total, 100.0 million Chinese citizens were killed. During the Cultural Revolution, 10-20.0 million young intellectuals with higher education were exiled to work in remote rural areas. 5.0 million Red Guards went to the remote countryside and stayed there for ten years.

The Red Guards, who lived in the countryside for ten years, experienced life and saw the poverty of the people on the ground. China, full of Red Guards and Red Communists waving red flags, shouting slogans and holding red books, has gone mad with politics.

Hundreds of Southern Mongolians fled the cultural revolution of the 1960s and crossed the border to Mongolia.

However, the Mongolians despised their Southern Mongolian brothers as "Chinese spies" and "hujaa" and gave them the hardest work and chased them to the far countryside. The Southern Mongolians who arrived in the 1960s were deported, and they were not issued Mongolian identity cards for twenty or thirty years. However, those Southern Mongolian intellectuals worked hard for Mongolia all their lives, but the Mongolian government did not give them a single letter of celebration or certificate of approval.

When I was working in Khentii region, I met a Southern Mongolian. His name was Tegshee. Tegshee was a hard-working and intelligent ordinary worker from Southern Mongolia who fled across the border to Mongolia in the 1960s. He was a hardworking and diligent person who had built a beautiful private house in the western part of the city of Undurkhaan, planted various vegetables in his yard. He was a family with a Khalkh Mongol wife and several beautiful sons. In the 1980s, I got to know Mr. Tegshee and sometimes when he came to the executive administration of a province, I would have a conversation. Mr. Tegshee applied for Mongolian citizenship for thirty years, and after trying to get a Mongolian citizenship card, he went to Southern Mongolia after many years. He met his relatives in Southern Mongolia.

When he came back, I met Mr. Tegshee and talked about the current reality of Southern Mongolia. When Mr. Tegshee went to Southern Mongolia, I told him to find a book called "Chinggis Khaganu Tovchoo" created by a Southern Mongolian scholar named Saishaalt, and I brought it to him, and I was learning to read it in vertical Mongolian script. It was from this person that I first heard about how the cultural revolution took place in Southern Mongolia, and how the people of Southern Mongolia who escaped from Southern Mongolia and came to Southern Mongolia were treated coldly and treated as outsiders. Then I gave him a copy of this unpublished and kept secret article I had written, "Occupied Mongols", and thought to alleviate his pain a little bit: "You are not the only one who is suffering. In this article, I wrote a true story about the hardships Buryat, Khalmyk, Tuva and Southern Mongolians suffered during communism. It is kept secret because it is not yet time to publish it in the newspaper. Please read carefully. "Don't let someone else read it," he said.

In the 1960s, the Green Hats of the Ministry of Military and Social Security from Threats strictly checked the Southern Mongolians who had fled, suspected them of being communists, and then issued them green cards as "residents" and distributed them to rural provinces.

30,000 Khalkh refugees fled from Khalkh Mongolia to Southern Mongolia in 1932 to escape from the Reds. 30,000 Khalkh refugees stayed in Southern Mongolia for almost 15 years. When they returned to their homeland after the war in 1945, the green hats of the Ministry of the Interior were even "revealed" that Khalkh men from Khalkh families were recruited into the Southern Mongolian army in a month and put them in prison on the trumped-up charge of "treason".

There is a tragic history of killing even Khalkh monks who voluntarily returned to their homeland from Southern Mongolia. Therefore, those ethnic Mongolian families who first fled to Southern Mongolia in 1930-1938 did not return to Mongolia, but moved to Tibet and from there to India and Nepal. At least they won't be killed by Mongolian green hats. Most of the Southern Mongolians who fled to Mongolia in the 1960s worked as herders, builders, boiler cooks, locksmiths, and drivers. Few Southern Mongolians have received higher education. Many Southern Mongolians were imprisoned or repressed back to China. Only God knows how many of our brothers and sisters from Southern Mongolia, who had believed in the land of salvation and happiness, suffered and drowned them in a sea of ​​despair and tears.

A total of 65.0 million Chinese citizens lost their lives in the twentieth century as a result of Red Communism in China, the world's most populous country with an ancient culture. A total of 100.0 million people in the world lost their lives due to the massacre of red communism. What a tragedy. What a disgrace.

Publicist: Lawyer, journalist, publicist, historian and theologian Sukhbaatar Dorj

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