By 1947, in Southern Mongolia, a group of Southern Mongolians led by Hafanga and a group of Southern Mongolians led by Ulaankhuu were trying to solve the problems of Southern Mongolia. These two were the leaders of Southern Mongolia.
Hafanga was a Japanese-educated, pro-Japanese, Mongolian nationalist and unification intellectual. Ulaankhuu was a representative of the Chinese Communist Party who graduated from Moscow in the Soviet Union. Ulaankhuu did not speak Mongolian at all, he only spoke Chinese.
Ulankhuu was a communist who served in the Chinese army and worked under the leadership of Mao Zedong between 1939 and 1945. It was said that Ulaankhuu Southern Mongolia would be included as a federal state like Soviet Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Uzbek, Ukraine, and Belarus as part of the Chinese federal state, and socialism would be established. In the end, the intellectuals who supported Hafanga sided with Ulaanhukuu. At that time, it is said that Prince De, a freedom fighter of Southern Mongolia, had 10 Mongolian divisions or 40,000 soldiers. But Ulaankhuu didn't have any soldiers. Soon, Ulaankhuu took over 4 divisions of Prince De army.
In 1947, Southern Mongolian people with blind policies like Ulaankhuu of Southern Mongolia did not feel the danger of Red China, they forgot the interests of Southern Mongolia, and they voluntarily joined the Communist Party of China, which was forced into Southern Mongolia by Kuomintang soldiers, and tried to unite Southern Mongolia to Red China. Together with the Chinese Communists, they met on May 1, 1947 in Wangin Süm, now Ulaan City, and established the so-called Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region on a Soviet model, thus creating the conditions for Southern Mongolia to become a Chinese province. This day was the most tragic day written in black in history for Southern Mongolians. Until 1947, Southern Mongolia lived peacefully with its national culture and religion, its farmers, herds of cattle, and herdsmen. But the Chinese communists destroyed the peaceful life of Southern Mongolians. The storm of the Red Revolution and the Cultural Revolution began in Southern Mongolia.
In 1954-1955, the eastern provinces of Southern Mongolia were annexed to neighboring Chinese provinces. Chinese people were moved to Southern Mongolia in large numbers.
In 1955, the Chinese took away the right to self-governance of Southern Mongolia from the Mongolians. In 1955, 9.0 million Chinese people immigrated to Southern Mongolia. In 1958, 1.0 million Mongols lived in Southern Mongolia. By 1964, more than 10 million Chinese and 1.3 million Mongols lived in Southern Mongolia.
In the name of taking possession of vast land in Southern Mongolia, turning it into an agricultural zone, turning it into a livestock district, and creating a cultural revolution, the Chinese communists transplanted more than 10 million Chinese to Southern Mongolia and took over the land under the influence of Mongolian herdsmen. They despised the Mongolian tradition to love and protect our earth, land, mountain and water, then said, "Now is the time to build a harmonious society in Southern Mongolia, it's time for a cultural revolution." The Chinese justified their cruel actions and forced the ideology of the Reds on the people of Southern Mongolia. Anyone who opposed or criticized Reds was immediately imprisoned or shot dead. In this way, cruel times have come to Southern Mongolia since 1947. The Chinese Reds were confiscating the livestock of the Southern Mongolian people, destroying their idols, burning their scriptures, and demolishing their temples. A collective commune was established, a so-called communal kitchen was created, and everything became common property. Throughout the country, red flags were waved, slogans were shouted, political stupid meetings were held continuously, and the people were starving.
During the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, 20 million people died of starvation in China. The people will not be satisfied with a red flag and a red book. Under the guise of developing mining and agriculture in Southern Mongolia, building cities, and building factories, millions of Chinese were settled in Southern Mongolia, and they took over livestock pastures, plowed up a large amount of plains to plant crops, killed animals, destroyed the natural beauty, and brought Mongolian nomadic civilization to the brink of extinction.
In this regard, Chinese author Jiang Rong's book "Wolf Totem" describes it in a clear and eloquent way. This horrible nightmare lasted for 30 years in Southern Mongolia. At that time, many intellectuals and people from Southern Mongolia crossed the border to Mongolia to escape from the Chinese Reds. But the poor Southern Mongolians were "out of the tiger's mouth and into the leopard's mouth". Communists of Red Mongolia together with Communists of Red Russia and Red China arrested their brothers of Southern Mongolia who fought against China for freedom when they crossed the border to Mongolia and put them in prison. Most of them were returned to China and some were brutally treated by shooting.
Even the people of Mongolia used to insult and ostracize their Southern Mongolian brothers who came across the border as "Chinese spies" and "Khujaa", and they wrote letters to the Ministry of Internal Defense of Mongolia to inflict great harm on them.
Publicist: Lawyer, journalist, publicist, historian and theologian Sukhbaatar Dorj