Article, Historical

D. Sukhbaatar: Southern Mongolia during the Bogd Khanate of Mongolia

Picture: Photographer Elbegzaya L. 

Southern (Inner) Mongolia during the Bogd Khanate of Mongolia: When the Manchu Empire collapsed in 1911 and The Republic of China was established, the Manchu Qing dynasty was completely inherited by the Chinese, who declared the establishment of a five-nation empire, suppressed the national liberation movement by adding Chinese troops to the Southern (Inner) Mongolian rebel counties that were trying to unite with Mongolia and establish an independent Mongolia. From that time on, Southern (Inner) Mongolians were subjected to several times more brutal Chinese oppression than the Manchu Qing Dynasty. During the Manchu dynasty, Southern (Inner) Mongolians lived under the protection of the Manchu emperor, but after the fall of the Manchu dynasty, they had to live with their heads bowed under the Chinese state.

For 36 years from the year of white pig revolution of 1911 to 1947, there are no official records of how the Chinese oppressed and killed the Mongols, and they remain a mystery to this day.

The struggle of the Southern (Inner) Mongols against the Chinese invaders for the freedom of their nation in the area of ​​1,180,000 square kilometers from the eastern Barga and steppes of Daguur to the western Alshaa and Eznee Gobi deserts did not stop even a single day. One of the forms of struggle of the Mongols at that time was an armed struggle to oust the Chinese virgin land occupiers. Armed with outdated models of swords, bows, and firearms, the unorganized, unassisted Southern (Inner) Mongolian army was defeated and massacred by a Chinese army with immeasurable numbers and well-equipped modern weapons. At that time, only a few Southern (Inner) Mongolian rebels managed to escape the Chinese threat and reach the Mongolian Bogd Khuree.

Among them were Manlaibaatar Damdinsuren of Barga, who died in Chinese prison during the liberation of Khovd, one of the first to seek help from the White Tsar of Russia, Togtokh Zorigt Baatar, Deputy Chief of the Mongolian Ministry of Defense, who awarded from Bogd as a Hero of the Battle, the first to join the organization was Sumiya Bees, a hero who fought in the war to liberate Khovd and the Battle of Kyakhta was the head. These Southern (Inner) Mongolian heroes made a great contribution and risked their lives for the independence of the Bogd Khanate of Mongolia.

In 1911, the Manchu Dynasty declined and the Republic of China was established. This period (1911-1949) is called the Kuomintang China period. Taking advantage of the collapse of the Manchu Dynasty, the Bogd Khanate of Mongolia was established on December 29, 1911. Bavuujav, the Just Hero of Southern (Inner) Mongolia, brought his 2,000 Southern (Inner) Mongolian cavalry from Southern (Inner) Mongolia and stationed them at the Khuree. Genghis Khaan's grandson, a descendant of Kublai Khaan, the head of the Zost Chuulgan\Assembly, the mayor of Zuun Tumed Khoshuu, Just Hero Khorchin Bavuujav (1875-1916), a hero who led the Mongolian struggle against China, was a brave and powerful general in the Mongolian army.

After hearing the good news that Mongolia had become independent, the Mongols of 49 counties of Southern (Inner) Mongolia, from Barga and Khyangan to Khukh Nuur, Alshaa, and Il Tarvagatai, expressed their desire to join the Bogd Khanate of Mongolia. However, Chinese President Yuan Shikai, dissatisfied with Mongolia's independence at the time, tried to invade Southern (Inner) Mongolia by deploying 40,000 troops (some estimates put the number at 80,000) under the guise of "serving the North." The Bogd Khaan immediately assembled the Khalkha Mongol army, led by First hero\Manlai van Damdinsuren, and sent 10,000 Khalkha Mongol troops on five paths to liberate Southern (Inner) Mongolia from the Chinese Kuomintang army.

Mr. First hero\Manlai van Damdinsuren, Southern (Inner) Mongolian, was well versed in Chinese military tactics, so the Bogd Khaan's Mongol army fought and defeated the Chinese ten times.

Bavuujav, a brave hero, took the lead in this battle and defeated the Chinese army. The Mongols liberated most of Southern (Inner) Mongolia and almost faced the Great Wall of China. However, Imperial Russia and China conspired to force the withdrawal of Mongolian troops from Southern (Inner) Mongolia under the 1915 Treaty of Kyakhta. Originally, the Khalkha Mongol army would have stayed there permanently without leaving Southern (Inner) Mongolia.

Only Bavuujav strongly opposed the wrong decision of the Treaty of Kyakhta. The biggest mistake of the Bogd Khanate Mongolian government was to expel Bavuujav from Khalkha, claiming that he had opposed the Treaty of Kyakhta. It was also a great mistake for Mongolia to persecute Togtokh Noble\Taij and Udai Prince\Wang, both of Southern (Inner) Mongolia, who had made significant contributions to the independence of Mongolia.

At the same time, the Bogd Khanate of Mongolia tried to establish ties with a third country, Japan, Germany, and Britain, but these foreign countries did not help to establish ties with Mongolia, claiming that "Imperial Russia knew Mongolia. Soon, under the pressure of Imperial Russia, Bogd Khanate Mongolia withdrew its troops from Southern (Inner) Mongolia, and Southern (Inner) Mongolia fell into a difficult situation and was in danger of being conquered by China. Then, in 1917, Chinese troops invaded Mongolia, taking advantage of the Red Revolution in Russia and the collapse of Imperial  Russia. First, in July 1919, 5,000 Kuomintang troops, and then 10,000 Kuomintang troops, came to Mongolia. As a result of the betrayal of the Mongol princes, the Kuomintang army entered the Khuree.

Some Mongolian princes, led by Tserendorj, tricked in Chen Yi, the Chinese envoy to the Khuree, into destroying the Bogd Khanate's autonomous state and asked the Chinese government to bring Kuomintang troops into the Khuree. Thus, the Mongols, who were responsible for fighting the Kuomintang army, entered the Khalkha capital Khuree without firing a single shot, and then confiscated their weapons from the Kuomintang army. Could there be a greater disgrace? In 1919, the Bogd Khanate of Mongolia was occupied by the Kuomintang army without any resistance. How can the Mongolians not only liberate Southern (Inner) Mongolia, but also liberate themselves from the Kuomintang army? faced a problem. The Bogd Khan wrote a letter to the leaders of the world's great powers asking them to help liberate Mongolia from the Kuomintang army. Only Baron Ungern decided to help the Bogd Khan. During the bitter cold of winter, Baron Ungern led a thousand brave soldiers against countless Kuomintang soldiers.

On February 4, 1921, Baron Ungern liberated the capital Khuree from 15,000 Gamin troops, reinstated the Bogd Khan, and re-established Mongolia. The Bogd Khan awarded Baron Ungern the title of "Great Hero of the Nation". By April 1921, the Baron General had completely liberated all of Mongolia from the Kuomintang army. But soon, blind and naive people like Sukh and Choibalsan betrayed the side of the Red Russians, and the People's Party took tens of thousands of Red Russian soldiers to Khalkh Mongolia and slaughtered the Mongolian soldiers of the Bogd Khanate in Kyakhta, on July 6, 1921, Khuree, the capital of Mongolia, was occupied by the military. The greatest tragedy for the Mongols was that in 1920, the People's Party, which had gone to Red Russia to ask for weapons to fight Kuomintang, brought in Red Army troops, not weapons. In July 1921, the Reds overthrew the legitimate Bogd Khanate and established a brutal Red government that followed Red Russia. In fact, the worst agreement for Mongolians was the 1915 Russia-Mongolia-China "Treaty of Kyakhta". The Treaty of Kyakhta rejected Mongolia's plans to unite Southern (Inner) Mongolia, and Imperial Russia agreed with Japan to include Mongolia under Russian influence and Southern (Inner) Inner Mongolia under Chinese influence, reflecting the interests of the Middle Kingdom in occupying Southern (Inner) Mongolia. Under this agreement, Russia and China pushed Mongolia to the brink of annexation to Southern (Inner) Mongolia, forcing the Mongols to withdraw from Southern (Inner) Mongolia as soon as possible.

The Chinese used the Mongol retreat to their advantage, and in 1928 the Chinese invaded Southern (Inner) Mongolia and began to divide their territory. From 1921 to 1945, the Southern (Inner) Mongolians continued to fight for freedom, independence, and the integrity of Southern (Inner) Mongolia. In this struggle, the Just Hero Bavuujav, and Prince Demchigdonrov made special merits. In 1925, the People's Party of Southern (Inner) Mongolia was established and began to fight for Southern (Inner) Mongolia. However, The party had to stop its activities due to internal disputes and external impact such as the Kuomintang put their representatives in the People's Party of Southern (Inner) Mongolia, and the Chinese Communist Party pushed in its representatives.

The Just Hero prince\wang Bavuujav fought bravely against the Chinese soldiers of the Middle Kingdom until the end. On October 10, 1916, he was killed by an enemy artillery shell while advancing to Lixin City, Zhehe Province. In 1916, the Mongolian soldiers of Khatanbaatar Magsarjav of Khalkh Mongolia killed the remaining Southern (Inner) Mongolian soldiers of the Just Hero Bavuujav. What a shame that Mongolian soldiers fought with Mongols.

This is how the Russian and Chinese plan to subdue the Southern (Inner) Mongolian army with the Mongolian army was implemented. This is how the Bogd Khanate of Mongolia entered the Russian and Chinese tricks. Bogd Khanate Mongolian state could not find a way out of Russian and Chinese tricks.

Even though the Just Hero Bavuujav died, his three sons continued to fight for Mongolia in Southern (Inner) Mongolia.

We Mongolians should not forget the names of Southern (Inner) Mongolian patriots Noble\Taij Togtokh, Duke Khaisan, First hero Damdinsuren J., Udai prince\wang, of Just hero Duke Bavuujav, Duke Gonchigsuren, and Victorious Hero Sumya, who fought heroically for the independence of Mongolia in 1911.

Publicist: Lawyer, journalist, publicist, historian and theologian Sukhbaatar Dorj

Translated by Zolzaya N.

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