Article, Historical

D. Sukhbaatar: ONE. Southern Mongolia

Picture: Photographer Elbegzaya.L 

Southern (Inner) Mongolia during the Manchu Dynasty. In general, there was a Great Mongolia, but the terms Southern (Inner) Mongolia and Northern Mongolia did not exist at all. The word Southern (Inner) Mongolia probably originated in the 17th century. However, during the Manchu Dynasty, Southern (Inner) Mongolia was not much separated from Northern Mongolia and was interconnected. Because the Manchu emperor Enkh Amgalan issued a decree forbidding Chinese men from entering Mongolia and Chinese men from marrying Mongolian women, Chinese aggression could not enter Southern (Inner) Mongolia and Northern Mongolia. At the beginning of the 17th century, King Ligden of Tsahar tried to unite all Khamag Mongol, but his policy failed because it was wrong. Ligden Khan became an ally of Ming, the enemy of Mongolia, and received a large sum of money from the Ming emperor for protecting the northern border. King Ligden initially received a reward of 10,000 lan from the Ming emperor, but when King Ligden asked him to increase his reward, he increased the reward for King Ligden from Ming to 80,000 lan. The enemy of Mongolia at that time was not the Manchus, but the Ming dynasty of China. Instead of allying with the Manchus, who were hostile to the Ming dynasty of China, King Ligden was hostile to the Manchus. Because the Manchu king Nurhats was a visionary and intelligent man, he allied himself with the Kharchin, Horchin of eastern Mongolia, and other Southern (Inner) Mongolian princes, formed a powerful cavalry army, and began a war with the Chinese Ming dynasty. Nurhats Baatar wanted to be at peace with Ligden Khan of Mongolia, but Ligden ignored him. As a result, Nurhats Baatar defeated Ligden Khan's army in several battles, which was a major obstacle to China's war with Ming. After his defeat, Ligden Khan retreated to Khukh Lake in 1634 and died by disease in Gansu. Soon, the king of Manchu Abahai conquered Khukh Khot, Southern Mongolia and was crowned king of Mongolia. The Manchus conquered Greater China in just 11 years. Khalkha Mongols did not fall under Manchu influence and existed until 1691. At that critical juncture, the Galdan-Oirat invaded Tusheet Khan province of Khalkha with 30,000 troops, killing 20,000 Khalkha soldiers, and Khalkha Mongols could no longer exist. The Khalkha princes decided to submit to the influence of the Manchu king, as they escaped from Oirot army and fleed to Dolnuur city of Manchu.

When Khalkha's Undur Gegeen Zanabazar came to Dolnuur escaped from Galdan-Oirot, Reflecting on a vital issue that Would Khalkha Mongol choose between Russian or Manchu?:

“The Russian King has the wrong collar and the wrong religion. But the Manchu king is a Buddhist, an incarnation of Manzushir, a robe with a right collar, a generous and wise emperor, so it is better to follow the Manchu king. ” There was no other choice.

Because at that time, Khalkha Mongols were occupied by Galdan-Oirot and were ownerless. At this critical juncture in Mongolian history, Tsahar's Ligden Khan's misguided policies and the war against the Khalkha of Galdan Boshigt-Oirot both were the main causes of the decline of the Mongol. At that time, Ligden Khan was allying with the Chinese Ming dynasty, fighting against the Manchus, and Galdan-Oirat invading the Khalkh. If Mongolia had been a united and powerful country at that time, it would not have been afraid of China's Ming dynasty, of the growing Manchu power, of Russian aggression in the north, and of Southern (Inner) Mongolia. But the wheel of history turned out differently. The Manchus established their influence in Southern (Inner) Mongolia and divided Southern (Inner) Mongolia into 49 khoshuu \division\. Southern (Inner) Mongolian princes actively participated in the Manchu anabasis with cavalry. Southern (Inner) Mongolian princes fought alongside the Manchus against the Galdan Boshigt-Oirat army in the late 17th century, and in the late 18th century against the Manchus against the Dzungar Khanate. Later, the Khalkha Mongol lords used to sent cavalry to suppress the Chinese rebellion in the depths of Chinese territory, and together with the Manchus suppressed the revolt.

According to the Manchu-Mongol secret treaty, the Manchus were fully obliged not to allow Chinese into the territory of Khalkha Mongol, not to dig Chinese territory for gold, and to protect the Mongol from any foreign invasion. Thus, for three centuries, the Mongols lived peacefully under Manchu influence, spread Mahayana Buddhism, and became an enlightened nation. However, the Mongols had entrusted state affairs to the Manchus, so for three centuries the Mongols had no state and no army, and were later unable to fight even with bows and arrows. During the Manchu and Qing dynasties of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, the Northern and Southern (Inner) Mongols practiced Buddhism peacefully, raised livestock, and lived in abundance as its livestock benefitation. The Manchu king Enkh Amgalan strictly forbade the inner man (Chinese) to travel to the territory of Janchkhuu Mountain Pass in North Mongolia, the Chinese to marry the Mongols, and the Chinese to search for gold in Mongolia. This decree guaranteed the protection of the Mongols from Chinese influence. Southern (Inner) Mongolians began to be persecuted in the late 19th century during the Manchu Qing Dynasty, when the Chinese took control of the Manchu state. Here are some historical facts: In 1891, a Chinese army led by a Chinese peasant named Yang Ei Chuan massacred 150,000 Mongols in 48 days in the Kharchin three khoshuu \division\ of the Zost Chuulga, the southern margin of Southern Mongolia (the capital is current Ulaan city). It is said that the Chinese mobilized the Mongols in groups of two or three thousand and killed them without leaving a single person, were creating bone crowds and ditch of blood. When the fleeing Mongols returned to their homeland to bury their relatives after the riots subsided, they were horrified that if their legs could be found, hands couldn’t be found, if their heads could be found, their bodies could not be found, if their body could be found, their four parts couldn’t be found.

/Wang Guo Jiun “Mongolian Notes” 1994 new edition. Page 325. Taiwan. Taipei city /“.

The writer Vanchinbalyn Injinash, a descendant of the great Mongolian emperor who wrote the novel The Blue Chronicle (köke sudur, Хөх судар (Khökh Sudar)), fled the country after the murder, robbery and burning of his house, lived and sadly passed away in the ruined church locate in the current Jinzhou city of Liaoning province without medicine or food. Miserable Mongol Culture, miserable Mongol scholar.

Publicist: Lawyer, journalist, publicist, historian and theologian Sukhbaatar Dorj

Translated by Zolzaya N.

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